The Sumatran Rhinoceros: A Critically Endangered Species Facing Extinction

   The Sumatran Rhinoceros, also known as the hairy rhinoceros, is one of the most endangered species in the world, with only an estimated 80 individuals left in the wild. This magnificent creature is native to the dense rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo and is facing an imminent threat of extinction due to habitat loss and poaching. In this article, we will discuss the scientific name and classification, type, history, evolution and origins, physical description, social structure, anatomy and appearance, distribution and habitat, population, size, weight, behavior and lifestyle, reproduction, babies, and lifespan, diet and prey, predators and threats, relationship with humans, incredible facts, fun facts, and FAQs about the Sumatran rhinoceros.

Scientific Name and Classification:

  The scientific name of the Sumatran rhinoceros is Dicerorhinus sumatrensis. It belongs to the family Rhinocerotidae and the order Perissodactyla, which includes horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses.


  The Sumatran rhinoceros is one of five rhinoceros species and is the smallest of all rhinoceroses. It is also known as the hairy rhinoceros due to its dense fur, which sets it apart from other rhinoceros species.


  The Sumatran rhinoceros has a long history dating back to the Miocene epoch, around 20 million years ago. Fossil records suggest that the rhinoceros was once widespread throughout Southeast Asia and China, but due to habitat loss and hunting, its population has declined drastically.

Evolution and Origins:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros is thought to have evolved from a common ancestor shared with the African rhinoceros, around 15 million years ago. Its ancestors spread throughout Asia and evolved into several different species, including the woolly rhinoceros, which went extinct around 10,000 years ago.

Physical Description:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros has a distinctive appearance, with dense reddish-brown hair covering its body, except for its feet and face. It has two horns, the front one being larger than the rear, and a prehensile upper lip used for grasping food.

Social Structure:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros is a solitary animal, and the only time they come together is during mating season. However, they do leave scent marks to communicate with each other.

Anatomy and Appearance:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros has a sturdy build and can grow up to 1.5 to 1.7 meters in height and 2.5 to 3.2 meters in length. It weighs between 500 and 800 kilograms, making it the smallest rhinoceros species.

Distribution and Habitat:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros is native to the dense rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo, but due to habitat loss, their range has shrunk drastically.

Population – How Many Are Left?

  The Sumatran rhinoceros is critically endangered, and there are estimated to be only 80 individuals left in the wild. There are also a few individuals in captivity, but their breeding success has been limited.

Size and Weight:


  The Sumatran rhinoceros is the smallest of all rhinoceroses, with a height of 1.5 to 1.7 meters and a length of 2.5 to 3.2 meters. It weighs between 500 and 800 kilograms.

Behavior and Lifestyle:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros is a solitary animal and is active during the day and night, although it tends to rest during the hottest hours of the day. It is a shy and elusive animal and can be difficult to spot in the wild. The rhinoceros is known for its excellent sense of smell, which it uses to detect food, water, and other rhinoceroses.

Reproduction, Babies, and Lifespan:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros reaches sexual maturity at around 6 to 7 years old, and the mating season lasts from February to April. After a gestation period of 15 to 16 months, the female gives birth to a single calf, which she nurses for up to two years. The calf will stay with its mother for another two years before becoming independent. The rhinoceros has a lifespan of up to 35 years.

Diet and Prey:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros is a herbivore and feeds on a variety of plants, including young saplings, leaves, fruits, and bark. It is also known to eat mud and clay, which helps with digestion.

Predators and Threats:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros has no natural predators, but it is threatened by human activities such as poaching and habitat loss. The rhinoceros is hunted for its horn, which is believed to have medicinal properties and is highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine. Habitat loss due to deforestation and development has also contributed to the decline of the rhinoceros.

Relationship with Humans:

  The Sumatran rhinoceros has had a mixed relationship with humans throughout history. While it has been revered in some cultures and used in traditional medicine, it has also been hunted and persecuted for its horn. Conservation efforts are underway to protect the remaining populations and their habitats.

Incredible Facts:

  • The Sumatran rhinoceros is the most vocal of all rhinoceros species and communicates using a variety of sounds, including growls, snorts, and whistles.
  • The rhinoceros has a thick layer of skin, which is thought to protect it from insect bites and sunburn.
  • The Sumatran rhinoceros is a good swimmer and is known to cross rivers and streams in search of food and mates.
  • The rhinoceros is a keystone species and plays an important role in maintaining the ecological balance of its habitat.

Fun Facts:

  • The Sumatran rhinoceros is the only rhinoceros species with a hairy coat.
  • The rhinoceros has a reputation for being an aggressive animal, but it is actually quite shy and will only attack if it feels threatened.
  • The rhinoceros is a herbivore and has a diet that consists mainly of leaves, fruits, and bark.
  • The Sumatran rhinoceros is one of the oldest living mammals and has been around for over 20 million years.


Q: Why is the Sumatran rhinoceros endangered?

A: The Sumatran rhinoceros is endangered due to habitat loss and poaching. Deforestation and development have led to the destruction of its habitat, while poaching for its horn has led to a decline in its population.

Q: What is the Sumatran rhinoceros' habitat?

A: The Sumatran rhinoceros is native to the dense rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo.

Q: How many Sumatran rhinoceros are left in the wild?

A: There are estimated to be only 80 Sumatran rhinoceros left in the wild.


  The Sumatran rhinoceros is a critically endangered species that is facing numerous threats, including habitat loss and poaching. Its unique physical characteristics and important role in its ecosystem make it a vital species to protect. Conservation efforts are underway to save the remaining populations and their habitats, but more needs to be done to ensure the survival of this magnificent animal. As we continue to learn more about the Sumatran rhinoceros, we can better understand the importance of protecting and preserving our planet's biodiversity for future generations.

Next Post Previous Post
No Comment
Add Comment
comment url