Dicerorhinus: The Endangered Two-Horned Rhino

  Rhinos are one of the most iconic animals in the world, known for their majestic appearance and ancient lineage. Among the five living rhino species, Dicerorhinus, also known as the Sumatran rhinoceros, stands out for its unique two-horned appearance and status as the smallest and rarest member of the family. Unfortunately, Dicerorhinus is also one of the most endangered animals on earth, with only a few hundred individuals remaining in fragmented populations across Southeast Asia. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of Dicerorhinus, exploring its scientific name and classification, history, evolution, physical appearance, social structure, habitat, population status, behavior, reproduction, diet, predators, threats, relationship with humans, incredible facts, fun facts, and frequently asked questions.

Scientific Name and Classification:

  Dicerorhinus is a genus of rhinoceros that contains a single living species, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, also known as the Sumatran rhinoceros. The genus name Dicerorhinus derives from the Greek words di, meaning "two," and kerōn, meaning "horn," referring to the two distinctive horns that grow on the rhino's snout. The species name sumatrensis refers to the rhino's native range in Sumatra, an island in Indonesia. Dicerorhinus belongs to the family Rhinocerotidae, which also includes the African rhinos (white, black, and southern) and the Indian rhino.


  Dicerorhinus is a mammal and belongs to the class Mammalia. It is also a herbivore, feeding on a variety of plants and fruits.


  The history of Dicerorhinus is closely intertwined with the history of rhinos as a whole. Rhinos have existed on earth for millions of years, evolving into a diverse group of species that ranged from tiny, agile creatures to massive, lumbering beasts. The first rhinos appeared in the Eocene epoch, around 50 million years ago, and gradually diversified over time. Dicerorhinus itself first emerged in the fossil record around 15 million years ago, during the Miocene epoch, when it shared the landscape with other rhino species like the woolly rhino and the giant hornless rhino.

Evolution and Origins:

  Dicerorhinus is believed to have diverged from its closest living relative, the Javan rhino, around 2 million years ago. Both species share a two-horned appearance and a similar geographic range, but Dicerorhinus is distinguished by its smaller size, shaggier hair, and more pointed snout. The evolution of Dicerorhinus has been shaped by various factors, including climate change, geological events, and human activity.

Physical Description:

  Dicerorhinus is a small rhino, measuring around 1.4 to 1.9 meters in length and 0.9 to 1.4 meters in height at the shoulder. It is covered in shaggy brown fur, which is thinner on the belly and legs. The rhino's most distinctive feature is its two horns, which are made of keratin, the same material as human hair and nails. The front horn is longer and more prominent, measuring up to 25 centimeters in length, while the rear horn is shorter and often less visible. Dicerorhinus also has a prehensile upper lip, which it uses to grasp leaves and branches while feeding.

Social Structure:

  Dicerorhinus is a solitary animal, with no fixed social structure. Adult males and females typically only come together during the mating season, which can occur at any time of the year. Outside of breeding season, males and females lead largely separate lives, with females raising their young on their own. However, Dicerorhinus is known to communicate with other individuals through vocalizations, scent marking, and body language.

Anatomy and Appearance:

  Dicerorhinus is a sturdy, compact animal, with a broad chest, short legs, and a thick neck. Its head is relatively small compared to other rhino species, with a pointed snout and small ears. The rhino's eyesight is poor, but it has a keen sense of smell and hearing. Dicerorhinus is well adapted to its forest habitat, with a tough hide that protects it from thorns and branches and a prehensile upper lip that allows it to grasp food.

Distribution and Habitat:

  Dicerorhinus is found in Southeast Asia, specifically in Indonesia, Malaysia, and possibly parts of Thailand and Myanmar. Its habitat is typically dense, tropical rainforests, where it feeds on a variety of understory plants and fruits. However, the rhino has also been known to venture into secondary forests, plantations, and even open grasslands.

Population - How Many Are Left?

  Dicerorhinus is one of the most endangered rhino species in the world, with only a few hundred individuals remaining in the wild. The exact population size is difficult to estimate, as the rhinos are scattered across small, fragmented populations in various countries. However, recent surveys suggest that there may be less than 100 individuals remaining in Sumatra and possibly fewer than 80 individuals in Borneo.


  Dicerorhinus is the smallest living rhino species, with adult males typically weighing between 500 to 800 kilograms and females weighing between 400 to 600 kilograms.


  Dicerorhinus has a stocky, compact build, with a broad chest and thick neck. Adult males typically weigh between 500 to 800 kilograms, while females weigh between 400 to 600 kilograms.

Behavior and Lifestyle:

  Dicerorhinus is a solitary animal, with no fixed social structure. It is active during the day and night, although it tends to be more active at dawn and dusk. The rhino spends most of its time browsing for food, using its prehensile upper lip to grasp leaves and branches. It also enjoys wallowing in mud and water to cool off and protect its skin from insects.

Reproduction, Babies, and Lifespan:

  Dicerorhinus has a low reproductive rate, with females typically giving birth to a single calf every 3 to 5 years. The gestation period lasts for around 15 to 16 months, after which the female gives birth to a calf weighing around 25 to 30 kilograms. The calf stays with its mother for around 2 to 3 years, during which time it learns how to find food and navigate the forest. Dicerorhinus can live for up to 35 years in the wild.

Diet and Prey:

  Dicerorhinus is a herbivore, feeding on a variety of plants and fruits. Its diet consists mainly of understory plants, such as saplings, shrubs, and fallen fruits. It also eats bark, leaves, and occasionally flowers. Dicerorhinus has a complex digestive system, with multiple stomach compartments that allow it to break down tough plant fibers.

Predators and Threats:

  Dicerorhinus has few natural predators, although tigers and crocodiles have been known to attack young rhinos. However, the biggest threat to Dicerorhinus comes from humans. The rhino's habitat is rapidly disappearing due to deforestation, agriculture, and urbanization. Additionally, poaching for its horn is a major threat, as the horn is highly prized in traditional Asian medicine and as a status symbol. Despite international trade bans and conservation efforts, poaching continues to pose a significant threat to Dicerorhinus and other rhino species.

Relationship with Humans:

  Dicerorhinus has a long history of interaction with humans, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia, where it is considered a cultural and spiritual symbol. However, the rhino's close association with humans has also contributed to its decline. Habitat destruction and poaching are the most immediate threats, but the rhino is also affected by indirect threats such as climate change, disease, and human-wildlife conflict.

Incredible Facts:

  • Dicerorhinus is the most primitive of all living rhino species, with a skull structure that resembles that of its extinct ancestors.
  • The rhino's name, Dicerorhinus, means "two-horned nose" in Greek, although the species actually only has one horn.
  • Dicerorhinus is a keystone species in the rainforest ecosystem, helping to maintain biodiversity by dispersing seeds and creating small clearings in the forest.
  • The rhino is often referred to as the "Sumatran rhino" or "Bornean rhino," depending on where it is found, although there is some debate over whether these are separate subspecies or not.
  • Dicerorhinus is one of the most endangered mammals in the world, with only a few hundred individuals remaining in the wild.


  • Dicerorhinus has a unique vocalization that sounds like a "chuffing" noise, which it uses to communicate with other individuals.
  • The rhino's thick, leathery skin is covered in a layer of hair, which helps to protect it from insects and other parasites.
  • Dicerorhinus is an excellent swimmer and can cross rivers and streams to reach new areas of forest.
  • The rhino's prehensile upper lip is so sensitive that it can detect the texture of leaves and branches.
  • Despite its small size, Dicerorhinus is a powerful animal, capable of running at speeds of up to 50 kilometers per hour.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions):

Q: Why is Dicerorhinus endangered?

A: Dicerorhinus is endangered due to habitat loss and poaching for its horn, which is highly prized in traditional Asian medicine.

Q: How many Dicerorhinus are left in the wild?

A: There are only a few hundred Dicerorhinus remaining in the wild, with estimates ranging from 80 to 300 individuals.

Q: What is being done to protect Dicerorhinus?

A: Conservation efforts for Dicerorhinus include habitat restoration, anti-poaching patrols, and captive breeding programs.

Q: What is the difference between Dicerorhinus and other rhino species?

A: Dicerorhinus is the smallest living rhino species and has a unique skull structure that resembles that of its extinct ancestors. It also has a prehensile upper lip and is adapted to living in dense rainforest habitat.


  Dicerorhinus, also known as the Sumatran or Bornean rhino, is one of the most endangered rhino species in the world. Its small size, distinctive appearance, and unique adaptations make it a fascinating animal to study, but also one that is under threat from habitat loss and poaching. Conservation efforts are underway to protect the remaining populations of Dicerorhinus, but much more needs to be done to ensure the species' survival in the long term. As humans continue to encroach on the rhino's habitat, it is important that we work to preserve the remaining rainforests where Dicerorhinus lives, as well as cracking down on illegal poaching and trade of its horn.

  As a keystone species in the rainforest ecosystem, Dicerorhinus plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem health. Its decline would have ripple effects throughout the entire ecosystem, impacting other plant and animal species as well.

Despite the many challenges facing Dicerorhinus, there is hope for its future.

  Conservation efforts have led to some successes, such as the birth of several calves in captive breeding programs. Continued efforts to protect the species and its habitat, as well as education and outreach to reduce demand for its horn, could help ensure that Dicerorhinus remains a part of our world for generations to come.


  In conclusion, Dicerorhinus is a unique and fascinating species that deserves our attention and protection. As we work to address the many threats facing this species and other endangered wildlife, we must remember the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem health, and the critical role that each species plays in maintaining our planet's natural balance.

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